What Is Bretton Woods Agreement Describe Its Impact On The World
In 1946, the Fund began with a total of $8 billion, or 20% of the world`s reserves. (Today, this amount is worth about $100 billion) The rate was increased in 1971. The largest rate was the United States: $6.7 billion (21.9%): $2.8 billion (9.2%), Germany, France 5%, Japan 4%. The quota has been increased several times. Weaknesses include the high cost of moving gold to conduct international trade transactions and the lack of an appropriate regulatory mechanism (the gold standard was more advantageous for countries that produced gold at the expense of the global economy). The Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944 introduced a new global monetary system. It replaced the gold standard with the U.S. dollar as the global currency. It thus established America as a dominant power in the global economy. After the agreement was signed, America was the only country with the ability to print dollars. During the Bretton Woods era (1948-73), the volume of world trade increased six-fold, while the GWP tripled (from $7 trillion in 1950 to $21 trillion). ⇒ demand for foreign currency has increased six-fold, but the supply of gold has not increased significantly.
U.S. GDP per capita doubled ($2,700 in 1950 to $5,400 in 1973 at the end of Bretton Woods).) Martin and Philippon (2015) compare the behaviour of eurozone member states with that of US states during the Great Recession. The main difference between the euro area and the United States was the lack of a fiscal union that works well in the first state (Bordo et al., 2013). Their analysis shows that the experience between the United States and Europe in terms of household debt and employment was quite similar during the period 2007-2010. However, after 2010, there was a clear difference between the two currency zones. Peripheral countries in the euro area experienced a sharp halt in capital flows, resulting in higher the cost of credit (spreads) and a decline in employment and growth. On the other hand, the model of these variables has not been diverged in the U.S. states. Fiscal policies to date in euro area countries have had an impact on debt accumulation, both through perceived risks to repayment and sustainability and by the restrictions on expansionary fiscal policies it created after 2010. Delegates from New Hampshire created the International Monetary Fund to lend to indebted companies and oversee exchange rates around the world.
The conference also created the World Bank, a credit ion that was originally responsible for providing funds for the reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure in Europe and building capacity in developing countries. In early 1945, Bernard Baruch described the spirit of Bretton Woods as follows: “If we can put an end to labour subsidies and southerly competition in export markets” and prevent the reconstruction of war machines, “… Oh, my boy, my boy, what long-term prosperity we`re going to have.  The United States therefore uses its position of influence to reopen and control the [rules] of the global economy, in order to allow unfettered access to markets and materials of all nations.